Kahlúa’s rich history steeped in coffee growing region of Mexico

Vanilla ice cream, chocolate sauce, Kahlúa—then blend. My favorite milkshake, my favorite way to drink that coffee liqueur.

While Kahlúa was first created in Mexico in 1936, it isn’t that popular in Baja California Sur. Sure, all the bars are stocked with it, but beer and margaritas seemed to be the adult beverages of choice. Maybe it has to do with the price or it could be because it doesn’t seem like a thirst quencher, plus not everyone likes the flavor of coffee.

But clearly someone is drinking it. According to statista.com, “The coffee liqueur, which is manufactured by Pernod Ricard, recorded volume sales of 1.6 million 9 liter cases worldwide in 2019.” Kahlúa became the No. 1 selling coffee liqueur in the world in 1980 and still has that honor today. It was first imported to the United States in 1940, and can be found in most countries now.

The company has grown from its humble beginnings. Pernod Ricard USA, according the kahlua.com, “is the premium spirits and wine company in the U.S., and the largest subsidiary of Paris, France-based Pernod Ricard SA., the world’s second-largest spirits and wine company.” The creation came about when three guys in Veracruz, Mexico, decided to blend their interests. Two were growing Arabica coffee and the other was a chemist.

The price probably has something to do with it taking seven years to get the brown liquid into a bottle. This has to do with it taking six years at times to get the best coffee bean. Then there is the creation of rum. The coffee is roasted, blended with the rum and that then sits for four weeks before bottling.

While at first Kahlúa was drank straight—neat or on the rocks, and still is—it is now common to mix it with other liquids. It was in Brussels that the Black Russian—Kahlúa and vodka—was created. In 1955 the White Russian (Kahlúa, vodka, cream) was first made in Oakland, California. Calgary, Canada, is credited with the birthplace of the B-52 in 1977—Kahlúa, Irish Cream and Triple Sec. There are countless other ways to mix Kahlúa.

Adjusting to mangoes in Baja being affordable and in U.S. a bit pricey

The sweetness of that soft, almost velvety flesh is something to wait for each season. For those in the United States, it can be a bit expensive. For those where mangoes are grown, they can be as routine and abundant as backyard tomato and zucchini plants.

Such are the hazards of the world. Often it’s an overabundance of some crop in one location and a dearth in another. Thank goodness for the import/export markets.

While mangoes can be found this time of year in stores in the United States, many are littering the ground in Todos Santos. One social media post from this enclave in Mexico was looking for people to give the fruit to. It’s that prolific. Trees can be so full of these orbs that people sometimes leave what have fallen to the neighborhood critters.

It can be hard on the wallet buying mangoes in the United States. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

Todos Santos in 2007 started celebrating the mango with an annual festival in late July. COVID-19 is canceling so much fun throughout the world. The main season for the fruit in Mexico is July-September.

Mangoes are a such a versatile fruit in addition to being super healthy. Peeling them and then eating them straight is a great start. Making them part of a fruit salad is a good option. I’ve had them with yogurt, frozen them for smoothies, and made frothy margaritas. My friend, Jill, in Baja shared some of her jam with me. I used it on ice cream, too. Street vendors often have slices for sale.

Most countries that grow mangoes are in tropical areas, which makes Todos Santos a natural location. Based on where they are grown it makes since Asians eat the most mangoes at 29 percent, then Hispanics at 28 percent, Blacks at 16 percent, whites at 12 percent, other is 7 percent. The first documented cultivation of mangoes was in India about 2000 BC.

In metric tons the top mango producing areas are:

  • India—15.19 million
  • China—4.35 million
  • Thailand—2.6 million
  • Indonesia—2.13 million
  • Pakistan—1.89 million
  • Mexico—1.85 million
  • Brazil—1.25 million
  • Bangladesh—0.89 million
  • Nigeria—0.85 million
  • Philippines—0.8 million.

While Mexico doesn’t grow as many mangoes as some countries, it is exporting the most, according to mexicanmangoes.com. About 21 percent of the product is shipped out of the country. Dehydrated mangoes are growing in popularity, too.

Antioxidants in mangoes are a good deterrent against breast cancer, leukemia, prostate, and colon cancer. Eat an entire mango to get 25 percent of the daily vitamin A and beta-carotene requirements. They help lower cholesterol and manage insulin levels because of the low glycemic index.

People in the United States are beginning to consume more mangoes. In 2000, the average person ingested 1.75 pounds of fresh mangoes, while in 2018 that ballooned to 3.17 pounds. It represents a fraction of the more than 115 pounds of fruit consumed per person in the U.S. per year. People in the Western states are eating the most mangoes.

According to thepacker.com, “Mexican mango shipments to the U.S. have increased from just 277,000 metric tons in 2015 to 368,000 metric tons in 2019. Mexican mango shipments to the U.S. in 2019 were nearly 5 percent higher than 2018 shipments, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.”

Throughout the world there are more than 500 mango varieties.The more popular ones in Baja California Sur are Kent, Ataulfo (aka Manila), Manzano, Criollo, Machete, Papayo and Tempranero de Mayo.

Avocados a growing export from Mexico to the U.S.

Avocados are available year round at Todos Santos, Mexico, markets. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

Even though Mexico is credited with being the birthplace of avocados—with some saying they were being consumed as early as 550 BC—the popular Hass (rhymes with pass) variety is a California creation.

Still, Mexico grows more of this fruit than any other country. “In 2018-19, production of avocados in Mexico amounted to 2.18 million metric tons, an increase of 9 percent in comparison to the previous year. Production of avocados in the country is projected to increase to 2.26 million metric tons in the marketing year 2019-20,” according to Statista. The state of Michoacán, which is between Guadalajara and Mexico City, grows the bulk of the avocados.

The United States is the biggest importer, with about 1.7 billion pounds of avocados coming from Mexico every year. U.S. consumption is skyrocketing, with 2.45 billion pounds of avocado eaten in 2018. This compares to 2000 when 542 million pounds were ingested. More avocados are consumed on Super Bowl Sunday than any other day; about 200 million pounds. Canada and Japan are the next two biggest consumers of this Mexican produce.

Breakfast at Café Atelier September in Copenhagen, Denmark, was chosen by my niece based on it having the most Instagrammable avocado toast. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

Avocados are such big business for Mexico that this crop was deemed an essential business during the shutdown because of the novel coronavirus pandemic. (This compares to breweries in Mexico which all had to stop production.) Today the export business is valued at $3 billion, which is double what it was in 2014. Each year more land is turned over to avocado growers. In 2017-18 there were more than 231,000 hectares of avocado trees in Mexico, whereas in 2013-14 there were 168,110.

Not everyone is excited about the growth of the avocado industry because of what it is doing to the environment. For one, it takes a lot of water. It can take 270 liters or about 71 gallons of water to grow 1 pound of avocados. So, to grow all the avocados just for the Super Bowl it takes 54 billion liters of water. Another concern is orchards are encroaching on forests in Michoacán and are threatening the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve.

Costco in Carson City, Nevada, sells Hass avocados five per bag. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

According to Business Insider, “Avocado prices have rocketed in recent years by up to 129 percent, with the average national price of a single Hass avocado reaching $2.10 in 2019, almost doubling in just one year.” One reason these orbs cost so much is because it can take up to five years before a tree bears fruit. The expense of all that water is huge. Heat waves and other weather factors play a roll as well.

California is the No. 1 state in the U.S. for avocado production, with Florida and Hawaii contributing a small percentage. Avocado trees were first planted in Florida in 1833 and in California 23 years later. Still, Mexico has an advantage with the ability to grow the fruit year round. This is one reason why it produces three times what the Golden State does. California’s season is February-September, peaking in the summer. In 2019, California grew about 109,000 tons of avocados, whereas in 2018 the figure was 338 million pounds. The drop in tonnage was blamed on weather. This year the forecast is for 369 million pounds from California trees.

Even in Mexico it is the Hass avocado that is most popular. Worldwide this varietal makes up 80 percent of the world market, while in the U.S. Hass account for 95 percent of avocados consumed. Rudolph Hass in 1926 purchased avocado seeds from a nursery in Southern California that was sourcing seeds from several locations. Hass grafted the immature trees with the Fuerte avocado to create a new avocado that he named after himself. This Hass avocado was much different than what most people had been used to consuming because it was black instead of green, with rough skin instead of smooth. The inside was a better tasting product that was creamier.

Todos Santos once a thriving sugar cane manufacturing town


Machinery from a now-defunct sugar cane mill in Todos Santos, Mexico. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

Anyone who has been to Todos Santo will tell you there is something sweet about this pueblo in Baja California Sur. Maybe it has to do with its roots being in the sugar cane business.

In the late 1800s until the 1950s this town was the sugar cane capital of all of Baja. The last mill closed in 1965 or 1974, depends on whose history one believes. Much of the brown sugar was shipped to mainland Mexico. Several mills were scattered about town, with remnants of some still visible.

If it weren’t for a drought, this industry might still be thriving. The aquifer dried up in the early 1950s, causing the sugar cane plantations to wither. Sugar cane is considered a water-thirsty crop; after all, it is classified as a grass. For reasons no one is quite sure about the water table came back to life in 1981 and has remained viable. While many crops are planted in the area today, the sugar business has never been resurrected.

The El Molino chimney is the most intact one left in Todos Santos. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

The exact number of sugar cane mills, or molinos, varies depending what one reads. Information given out during the Historic Home Tour of Todos Santos earlier this year says there were five. They were:

  • San Pablo: This site had the first steam motor mill which belonged to the Markerou brothers, on the property of Enrique Max Estrada, now known at La Cachora.
  • El Rinconceto: Owned by Don Jesus Amador.
  • El Cerro Verde: Owned by the Dominguez family.
  • El Central: Located in front on the hospital on Calle Juarez; owned by Jose and Manuel Santana Villarino. They brought the first iron-cane crushing mill to Todos Santos. It came from San Francisco via Cabo San Lucas. A boutique hotel is being built on this land, which is incorporating remnants of the mill into the design.
  • El Molino: It was owned by Don Abraham Salgado Villalobos. It reportedly closed in 1974.

One of the best places to see some of the local sugar cane history is at the old El Progresso site, which today is known as El Molino. The remains are on land used as a small hotel and for residents in a neighborhood that used to be a trailer park.

Vats once used in the process to turn cane into sugar. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

A brick chimney from the mill is at least 40 feet tall. It looks in good enough shape that it could be used today. Five vats are rusted, with weeds growing in them. They sit idle, seemingly resting where they were left on the final day they were used.

The El Molino site is part of the biennial Historic Home tour. Docents share information about the history of Todos Santos’ sugar cane heyday, how the cane was turned into sugar, and then shipped from the old port to mainland Mexico.

Sugar cane was brought to the mills in 1 meter increments in a cart. The shoots were sent through a press to squeeze out the juice. That juice was then steamed or smoked to make the brown sugar. Fires were built with debris from the cane. The chimney sucked heat through the vats. The process was much more complex than this.

In the vats that still exist are wooded slabs with holes in them about the size of an egg. They would be filled with sugar and shipped in that manner. Some of these traditional brown sugar cones are still available in area stores.

Book Review: Baja cookbook more than recipes

Cookbooks aren’t just for learning new recipes. They can be picture books, history books and so much more. Such is the case with “Not Food for Old Men: A Mexican Culinary Adventure” (Sime Books, 2015).

While it has expected chapters like Salad, Soups, and Tacos; Seafood; and Desserts and Cocktails, there are also sections about whale watching, all of the chefs who contributed to the book and more. The book includes how singer Jim Morrison was a regular visitor to Ensenada. I now know the Caesar salad was first created by chef Livo Santini at the Hotel Cesar in Tijuana.

The disappointing section was on the Hotel California in Todos Santos. It says the Eagles song by the same name is about this lodging establishment. That is completely wrong. The Eagles sued the Todos Santos hotel for trademark infringement. The lawsuit was settled in 2018. Hopefully, future editions of the cookbook will set the record straight.

The cookbook was part of a package I “won” as the high bidder at the Gastrovino event a year ago this month. While there are not a ton of recipes I would use because of being a vegetarian, I’m still not sure I’m ready to pass the book on. Often I can substitute meat/fish for something else like tofu or a portabella mushroom. Mexican spices, sauces and all those peppers are delicious. Plus, there are a few drinks I’d like to try like the Kiwi-Jalapeno Margarita.

While I didn’t read every recipe, all are in Spanish and English. Most of the translations are good, and when they weren’t, I could figure it out. For instance, one place it says to strain things in cilantro when it should have been a colander.

The photographs are outstanding. More have to do with scenes in Baja than the food. All are inspirational to get one cooking cuisine from Mexico.

Mexico once the standard-Bearer for pure vanilla

Considering so many recipes only call for a teaspoon of vanilla, is it really that important which extract one uses? The answer, like so many things, all depends upon who you ask.

Pure vanilla is definitely better than imitation. But what about the country it came from?

Mexican vanilla was once in high demand. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

My Todos Santos friend Susan said, “I don’t use the vanilla from here. I use Kirkland which I think is very good.”

My Arizona friend Penny said, “I love Mexican vanilla. It seems a little stronger and maybe even a tad sweeter, if vanilla can ever be considered sweet. I think it has a wonderful smell and flavor. It’s not hugely different, but different enough that I prefer it to the vanilla I buy here.”

“It used to be that is was more pure and thus stronger and more flavorful. Check the ingredients and if there aren’t additives, it is great stuff,” my friend Jill said of Mexican vanilla.

It’s important to read the label to know if it’s pure vanilla or imitation. Finding authentic Mexican vanilla extract can be difficult because Mexico doesn’t have strict labeling laws. The beans might not even be from Mexico and additives are possible.

Vanilla was first discovered in Mexico. Today, according to reports, in terms of tons of vanilla produced it is No. 4 in the world behind Madagascar, Indonesia and China. It was used as a perfume of sorts before it began being added to drinks for flavoring.

“Grown from an orchid, vanilla beans are one of the world’s most difficult crops to cultivate. After harvest, the beans require an arduous and tricky nine-month process of sun drying to cure properly. Vanilla simply does not lend itself to mechanization or other methods of mass production,” according to CooksVanilla.com. “From start to finish, vanilla beans are produced by hand. This method is feasible only in poor countries where wages are low.”

Because of the process to bring pure vanilla extract to market it is pricey no matter what country makes it. It has been called the most labor-intensive crop in the world. The sad irony is locals in the country where vanilla extract is produced often cannot afford to buy it. That is why artificial extract is on the shelves.

Today, the United States is the largest consumer of vanilla, followed by Europe.

What passes for orange juice in Mexico is more like Tang

Even though the United States and Mexico are two of the largest citrus producing countries, what passes for commercial orange juice is strikingly different.

True, nothing beats fresh squeezed, but I’m too lazy to make it. There was a time when I drank OJ every day. Now I know better. Still, sometimes I want juice out of a container, even if it is mostly sugar water and not good for me. Even the not-from-concentrate orange juice falls into the unhealthy category.

Jumex is the main brand of juice in stores in Todos Santos. This Mexican company was founded in 1961. It has been importing juices to the United States since 1982.

What surprised me more than it coming in a box is that it was not refrigerated. Jumex mostly produces what it calls nectars. Nectar is fruit juice and pureed fruit. It might have pulp. The orange nectar from Jumex is pale in comparison to most U.S. orange juice brands, more like Tang. The taste is more Tang-like than orange juice, too.

For me, it acts as a thirst quencher – something to drink besides my usual water or Coke Light. Plus, it works fine for smoothies.

I can get U.S. orange juice in Mexico, but I have to travel for it. Costco in Cabo San Lucas sells Florida’s Natural orange juice (2.63 liters) for about $6. This is a bit spendy since it is imported. When I treated myself to it I discovered it wasn’t that special. I’ll stick with the Jumex orange nectar (1.89 liters) for about $2 when I have a craving.

Leave work behind, head to The Office on the beach

The Office’s “doctor” is ready to cure whatever ails you. (Image: Susan Wood)

Where do people often conduct business. At an office, right? In Baja people do the same thing. Only difference is sand, margaritas and the Sea Cortez are involved.

In this day of working remotely or needing to be connected to the boss or clients 24/7, people wouldn’t be lying if they answered a call, text or email and said they were at The Office. Business just might not be what they are conducting. The Office is actually a restaurant on the famous Médano Beach in Cabo San Lucas.

Its humble beginnings date to the 1970s when this area wasn’t much more than a fishing village. The big hotel/condo projects were still to come. Cabo wasn’t a destination for the masses; it was authentic Mexico in every direction.

The Office is open for business seven days a week. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

A palapa (thatch roof made of palm fronds) was erected and a tiny kitchen built. Tacos and other Mexican fare were on the menu. Soon some water toys were available for rent. It was loosely known at The Office, a name that stuck and is now part of the local lore.

It’s open from 7am to 10pm seven days a week. It’s not uncommon for alcohol to be on the table at an early hour – and not just mimosas or bloody Marys. Dr. Hang Over walks around with a stethoscope, lab coat and notepad. He writes prescriptions for hangovers and who knows what else. A “shot” of something is always in order. Medicine is not administered in the form of a syringe, but instead in a shot glass.

The vegetarian omelet is filling. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

Today The Office is much more than a makeshift eatery. It now shares Médano Beach with a slew of restaurants. The Sea of Cortez is just steps away. The scenery – natural and people watching – is wonderful. The hawkers selling their wares must stay a certain distance away, which is nice to be able to eat without that disturbance.

While it’s touristy, the food is good and there are options for vegetarians.

Array of choices to solve medical ailments in Mexico


Tea from three Mexican plants can bring stomach relief. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

Long before big pharma came into existence people used the land to cure what ailed them. They still are. I tried it earlier this month.

The main ingredient in my homebrewed tea was a handful of leaves from the nicle plant. Having never heard of the plant didn’t alarm me. I was tired of an ongoing intestinal issue that started with a night in the bathroom, and then kept zapping my energy, and left me with a wonky appetite.

I’m blaming my friend Marilyn for passing her stomach virus along to me via contaminated tennis balls. (Nothing scientific about that diagnosis.) She chose big pharma to cure her. I started with whining and sleep (no relief), then tried papaya seeds per my a friend’s recommendation (that worked in the moment, but wasn’t long lasting), then went to 7-Up (always settles my stomach, but then I could tell I had had too much, which caused more stomach discomfort), then Jill started plucking things from her property. It was time to go all in.

She got the recipe from her housekeeper, Laura. Jill had also heard about nicle being a medicinal plant from other local women.

“Laura gave us a cutting that she rooted so that we would have the plant. It is actually a large bush that evidently has a lovely flower,” Jill said.

According to the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, the nicle plant is good for diarrhea and stomach ache, kidney ache, fever and constipation. The plant is listed under the section: Traditional Medicine of Baja California Sur.

The journal says, “We have now registered 252 local names of traditional medicinal resources in this area. One hundred twenty medicinal plants have been collected. From these 120 species, 80 have been botanically identified and 49 are reported here.”

The Center for Biological Diversity in a paper titled “Medicinal Plants At Risk” states, “In the United States, of the top 150 prescription drugs, at least 118 are based on natural sources.” The problem is a tiny percentage of tropical plants have been screened to know their medicinal applications, and those that have risk being overharvested.

Jill supplied the necessary leaves, while I stopped at the market on my way home to get an avocado and cinnamon stick. I’m not sure if the cinnamon is there for medicinal purposes or flavor, since it alone has health benefits. The tea tasted great. However, I am grateful for the warning that the liquid medicine would be a magenta color.

I was also warned I could feel flush, even start to sweat and that drinking it could make me feel a little high. I got warm, but nothing alarming. Then I felt a little off and extremely tired. I was in bed at 8pm and asleep moments later. The best part is the relief was almost instantaneous.

The problem is that I got cocky thinking I could immediately eat regular again. Wrong. My body let me know the bug wasn’t gone. Another night of feeling like I was prepping for a colonoscopy. While I ended up on antibiotics to kill the germs, at least I was in Mexico. No doctor’s visit required. I just walked into the pharmacy to get what I needed. It also helps to have a sister who is a nurse practitioner to tell me how much to take and how often.

Jill collects nicle leaves. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

Tea Recipe

1 handful nicle leaves

½ handful quaba leaves

3 small mango leaves

1 avocado pit

1 cinnamon stick

2 cups water

Bring the above to a light boil and drink.

Disappointed in San Jose del Cabo’s Flora Farms

Flora Farms grows the produce used at the restaurant and sold at the store. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

If it had not been located on a dirt road, I’m not sure I would have believed I was in Mexico anymore. That’s what going to Flora Farms is like. I might as well have been in the United States based on the prices and concept.

This 56-acre organic farm in San Jose del Cabo provides food for the restaurant and market on-site, as well as for the homeowners. The grounds are stunning, with bananas dangling off trees in bunches, nopales cacti growing in a line like the other row crops, and herbs ready to be plucked by a sous chef. Guided tours of the garden are available.

Creative cocktails are available at the bar. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

While I enthusiastically embrace the farm-to-table concept, the feel of Flora Farms was a bit off putting, even though in some ways it is impressive. It felt a bit like a tourist trap. Like a place only visited by white people. Other than workers, only white people were there. This isn’t to say Mexicans with money don’t go there. Money, though, is definitely what you need. The fact everything was in English was telling.

Flora Farms offers cooking classes for the public. This week people could have paid $115 to learn how to prepare roasted vegetable tacos. This included lunch and a cocktail. As a vegetarian, let me tell you this would be a rip off.

The Farmarita is their version of a margarita. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

A cocktail is all I’ve had at Flora Farms. While my Farmarita was unique (it’s made with heirloom carrot juice), it wasn’t worth $15 (U.S.).

What I didn’t know until going to Flora Farms in January is that people live there. This is from Flora Farm’s website, “The limited remaining inventory is for sale, however is [stet] available only to those who receive a private invitation.” It’s that exclusive. Residents at least have a private pool.

Nopal in the garden at Flora Farms. (Image: Kathryn Reed)

It doesn’t cost money to walk through the grounds, check out the restaurant, bar and little store. It’s a bit of a drive, though. A few stores are in the compound – selling soaps, clothing and other goods. There is also a spa.

Even though I didn’t eat there, I’m still wondering what all the hype is about. I had Airbnb guests rave about Flora Farms, even leaving behind some of the granola and mango jam for me. The granola tasted like any I’ve had from a grocery store and the jam wasn’t as good as what my friend, Jill, makes.

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